An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone and
referred to as a Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) by the International Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO), is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
There are different kind of drones. They are UAS (Unmanned Air
System), UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), RPAS (Remote Piloted Aircraft Systems)
and Model Aircraft. Its flight is controlled either autonomously by onboard
computers or by the remote control of a pilot on the ground or in another
vehicle. The typical launch and recovery method of an unmanned aircraft is by
the function of an automatic system or an external operator on the ground.
It is common for many to perceive that UAVs are only deployed for
military and special operation applications, but, in a matter of fact, UAVs are
also used in a growing number of civil applications. *
Let us start by citing the rules
from the FAA books of info:
For civil operation, applicants may obtain a
Special Airworthiness Certificate, Experimental Category by
demonstrating that their unmanned aircraft system can operate safely
within an assigned flight test area and cause no harm to the public.
Applicants must be able to describe how their system is designed,
constructed and manufactured; including engineering processes,
software development and control, configuration management, and
quality assurance procedures used, along with how and where they
intend to fly. If the FAA determines the project does not present an
unreasonable safety risk, the local FAA Manufacturing Inspection
District Office will issue a Special Airworthiness Certificate in
the Experimental Category with operating limitations applicable to
the particular UAS.
The FAA has been working for several months to
implement the provisions of
Section 333 of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012,
"Special Rules for Certain Unmanned Aircraft Systems," which will
allow for commercial operations in low-risk, controlled
environments. Read more
about Section 333.
Having fun means flying safely! Hobby or
recreational flying doesn't require FAA approval but you
must follow safety guidelines. Any other use requires
anything hazardous to other airplanes or people and
property on the ground.
fly a model aircraft/UAS at the local
model aircraft club
take lessons and learn to fly safely
contact the airport or control tower when flying
within 5 miles of the airport
fly a model aircraft for personal enjoyment
fly near manned aircraft
fly beyond line of sight of the operator
fly an aircraft weighing more than 55 lbs unless
it's certified by an aeromodeling community-based
fly contrary to your aeromodeling community-based
fly model aircraft for payment or commercial
FAA Model Aircraft Operations Limits
According to the FAA Modernization and
Reform Act of 2012 as (1) the aircraft is flown strictly
for hobby or recreational use; (2) the aircraft is
operated in accordance with a community-based set of
safety guidelines and within the programming of a
nationwide community-based organization; (3) the
aircraft is limited to not more than 55 pounds unless
otherwise certified through a design, construction,
inspection, flight test, and operational safety program
administered by a community-based organization; (4) the
aircraft is operated in a manner that does not interfere
with and gives way to any manned aircraft; (5) when
flown within 5 miles of an airport, the operator of the
aircraft provides the airport operator and the airport
air traffic control tower?with prior notice of the
operation; and (6) the aircraft is flown within visual
line sight of the operator.
There's been a lot of odd
("botched") reporting on this,
so I'm hoping that this will
help clear things up a bit. Why
it's so difficult for reporters
to actually read five pages of
surprisingly clearly written
text is beyond me. It took me
about two hours to go through
and type this up. NY Times,
give me a call!
I've highlighted some
important parts of the text
concerning civilian or hobbyist
use. Scan down and read those
and you'll have a reasonable
idea of how the law applies.
If you're flying over
public property, private
property with permission of the
owner, or not intending to
surveil a particular person,
you're good to fly by this law.
addresses what kind of
pictures/video may be captured
from an unmanned aerial vehicle.
It adds chapter 423 to the
Texas state code.
423.001 -- defining an "image". (basically
what you expect: video/pictures,
along with all-encompassing
catch-alls covering sound,
smell, and the entire
423.002 -- Nonapplicability. (this is
the important part. anything
noted here is not covered by the
(A) It is legal to capture an
image by an unmanned aircraft
(1) for University research.
(2) at a designated test site
or test range.
(3) by the military.
(4) by a satellite for
purposes of mapping.
(5) by electric or natural gas
(a) facilities maintenance
(b) facilities inspection
(c) maintaining clearances
(d) routing and siting
services (6) with the consent of the
property owner or legal
(7) pursuant to a
(8) by law enforcement, for:
(a) immediate pursuit of a
non-misdemeanor criminal suspect
(b) documenting a
non-misdemeanor crime scene
(c) investing serious
(d) missing person search
(f) private property
generally open to the public and
(9) by state/local law
(a) surveying a potential
state of emergency scene
(b) preserving public
safety during a legal state of
(c) conducting routine air
(10) at the scene or suspected
scene of a HazMat spill.
(11) fire suppression.
(12) rescuing a person whose
life is in danger.
(13) real estate broker, if
there is no identifiable person
(14) within 25 miles of the
(15) less than 8 ft altitude,
with normal camera. (16) on public property,
and people on public property.
(17) inspecting pipelines and
related facilities, but not for
(18) oil pipeline safety and
(19) port authority
surveillance and protection.
(B) doesn't apply to
manufacturing or selling
423.003 OFFENSE: ILLEGAL USE OF
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT TO CAPTURE
(A) Illegal to to use
unmanned aircraft to capture an
image of a person or private
property with the intent to
conduct surveillance of that
person or property.
(B) class C misdemeanor
(C) defense if the person has
destroyed the image: (1) as soon as the person
knows the image was captured in
violation, and (2) without distributing
(D) "intent" is as per penal
code section 6.03
423.004 OFFENSE: USE OF IMAGE
(A) It's an offense if the
(1) captures the image as
per 003 above.
(2) possesses, uses or
distributes the image
(B) possession is a class C
misdemeanor. disclosure, etc,
(C) each image is a separate
(D) it's a defense if you
destroy an image as soon as you
know it's a violation.
(E) it's a defense if you stop
disclosing as soon as you know
it's a violation.
423.005 ILLEGALLY OR
INCIDENTALLY CAPTURED IMAGES NOT
SUBJECT TO DISCLOSURE
(A) No illegal image as
specified above can be used in
(B) except to prove a violation
of this law.
423.006 CIVIL ACTION
(A) an owner or tenant of a
property can bring a civil
(1) prevent a violation of
003 or 004.
(2) recover a civil penalty
(a) $5,000 per episode
(for all images)
(b) $10,000 per episode
(3) recover actual damages
if the person displays with
(B,C,D) details on bringing
civil action. (F) two year time limit to
bring civil action.
423.007. RULES FOR USE BY LAW
DPS shall adopt rules and
guidelines for law enforcement
423.008 REPORTING BY LAW
Law enforcement agencies must
report unmanned aircraft use,
Details as to reports.
Details as to when this law
The remote control/transmitter is nothing special, you can use any
remote, I use a standard 2.6ghz transmitter/receiver. I mean any R/C
transmitter/receiver will do, even from your old R/C toys. Just make sure
it is legal in your country to use it on an R/C aircraft.
It's well known that drones and 3D printing definitely make a
good pair. Additive manufacturing technologies allow droning professionals and
hobbyists to build their own aircraft. With today's technology, drones can
perfectly match their owner's needs.
What is 3D printing?
3D printing is a technology that is becoming increasingly
popular. A 3D printer is a machine that actually builds 3D objects, pretty much
any shape you can think of and, depending on the make of the printer, using a
variety of materials like plastic or metal. You can even build your own printer!
(search online for open source plans). You input plans for the object you want
built and the machine prints it, layer for layer, until you have a complete 3D
This video from pbs.org shows all the incredibly cool developments that this
The video below from
Sculpteo was shot from a UAV that had its parts made with a
?We?d been making our pieces through traditional
manufacturing so far, at much higher costs and longer waiting
time. When we discovered 3D printing, we were convinced at once.
?Thanks to 3D printing, pieces are really quickly available,
which means we can test them within a few days, and make changes
reactively. The material we chose allows us to create
complicated designs we wouldn?t have been able to produce
without additive manufacturing. The 3D printed pieces are also
extremely light, are resistant and stiff enough for our needs.
- See more at: http://blog.lidarnews.com/3d-printing-uavs#sthash.Lt30cai1.dpuf
The videos below are of a UAV
(HDS3 -Hexadrone) that
had its parts made with a 3D printer. The videos are in French, but are
self explanatory. As Alexandre Labesse of Hexadrone (a mechatronic
company based in France) explained to
Sculpteo: "We'd been making our pieces
through traditional manufacturing so far, at much higher costs and
longer waiting time. When we discovered 3D printing, we were convinced
at once... Thanks to 3D printing, pieces are really quickly available,
which means we can test them within a few days, and make changes
reactively... The material we chose allows us to create complicated
designs we wouldn?t have been able to produce without additive
manufacturing. The 3D printed pieces are also extremely light, are
resistant and stiff enough for our needs."
3D printed frame
Testplatformforbrushless3-axisPanasonic GH4camera on the HDS3
More demos of UAVs you can build by using 3D
3D printed UAV. The Razor is a 3D-printed,
hand-launchable, fully autonomous UAV. The aircraft was built with
freely available off-the-shelf parts, including an Android Smartphone
that acts as the central processor.
3D printed drone -Holland
More information on building,
and 3D printing, your own UAV/drone will be
published here very soon. If you have plans for a flyable drone that you would like to
share with us, please contact us.